Recent updates on drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis tb along with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and malaria rank among the top three fatal infectious diseases which pose threat to global public health especially in middle and low income countries. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to human health globally alarmingly multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis have now spread worldwide some key antituberculosis antibiotics are prodrugs for which resistance mechanisms are mainly driven by mutations in the bacterial enzymatic pathway required for their bioactivation. Tuberculosis tb an infectious disease caused by the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis mtb has burdened vulnerable populations in modern day societies for decadesrecently this global health threat has been heightened by the emergence and propagation of multi drug resistant mdr and extensively drug resistant xdr strains of mtb that are resistant to current treatment regimens. Drug resistance mechanisms in mycobacterium drug resistance is a major impediment to tb treatment and poses a challenge to global public health and therapeutics despite the efficacy of anti tb drugs there is emergence of drug resistant isolates of mtb several mechanisms facilitate the evolution of drug resistance in mtb such as compensatory evolution epistasis clonal interference
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